SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCEfor the benefits of The Mediterranean Diet
WEIGHT MANAGEMENT AND OBESITY
- Mediterranean diet and weight loss: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsMetabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 2011; 9(1): 1-12
Conclusions: The authors concluded that a Mediterranean diet could help to reduce body weight, especially when it was energy restricted, combined with physical activity, and longer than six months. It did not cause weight gain.
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (HEART DISEASE)
- A comprehensive meta-analysis on evidence of Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease: Are individual components equal? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Oct 13;57(15):3218-3232.
Conclusions: A Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with lower risks of CVD incidence and mortality, including Coronary Heart Disease and Myocardial Infarction. The protective effects of the diet appear to be most attributable to olive oil, fruits, vegetables, and legumes.
2. A Mediterranean diet and risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke: A population-based cohort study. Atherosclerosis. 2015 Nov;243(1):93-8
Conclusions: Better adherence to a Mediterranean diet (mMED score 6-8) was associated with lower risk of MI, HF and ischemic stroke. The Mediterranean diet is most likely to be beneficial in primary prevention of all major types of atherosclerosis-related CVD.
3. Meta-analysis comparing Mediterranean to low-fat diets for modification of cardiovascular risk factors. Am J Med 2011 Sep;124(9):841-51.
Conclusions: Mediterranean diets appear to be more effective than low-fat diets in inducing clinically relevant long-term changes in cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers (including weight loss and BMI).
TYPE 2 DIABETES
- A journey into a Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analyses. BMJ Open 2015 Aug 10;5(8)
Conclusions: The Mediterranean diet was associated with better glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors than control diets, including a lower fat diet, suggesting that it is suitable for the overall management of type 2 diabetes.
2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar;97(3):505-16.
Conclusions: Low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets are effective in improving various markers of cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes and should be considered in the overall strategy of diabetes management.
BENEFITS IN OTHER POPULATIONS
1. Are the advantages of the Mediterranean diet transferable to other populations? A cohort study in Melbourne, Australia. Br J Nutr. 1999 Jul;82(1):57-61.
Conclusions: A one unit increase in a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region, was associated with a 17% reduction in overall mortality (two-tailed P value 0.07). Mortality reduction with increasing diet score was at least as evident among Anglo-Celts as among Greek-Australians. We conclude that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with longer survival among Australians of either Greek or Anglo-Celtic origin.
1. Lifestyle, Mediterranean diet and survival in European post-myocardial infarction patients. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006 Dec;13(6):894-900.
There is a strong relationship between lifestyle and dietary habits and mortality in post-MI patients. The findings implicate that substantial health gain can be obtained by better adherence to dietary and lifestyle recommendations. Non-smoking, physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption and a Mediterranean-type diet were associated with lower all-causes mortality. Presence of at least three healthy behaviours was associated with 40% lower mortality.
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